2019-01-14 16:49:00 | Author：National Bureau of Statistics in October 2018 | Source：National Bureau of Statistics
To fully reflect the implementation process of the Outline for the Development of Chinese Women (2011-2020) (hereinafter referred to as the Outline), the National Bureau of Statistics made a comprehensive analysis on the implementation of the Outline in 2017 in terms of health, education, economy, decision-making management, social security, environment and law according to the statistics and data of relevant departments. The results show that the Outline is smoothly implemented on the whole, but individual indicator in some areas makes slow progress.
I. Implementation of the Outline in each field
(I) Women and health.
1. Maternal mortality rate continues to decline. In 2017, the maternal mortality rate decreased from 30/100,000 in 2010 to 19.6/100,000, and the target of 20/100,000 in the Outline has been achieved ahead of time. However, the maternal mortality rate in rural areas has risen from 20/100,000 last year to 21.1/100,000.
2. The level of maternal care has been improved. Compared with 2010, the indicators of maternal health care continue to improve. In 2017, the hospital delivery rate of pregnant and lying-in women was 99.9%, increased by 2.1%; the system management rate of pregnant and lying-in women was 89.6%, increased by 5.5%. The indicators such as card building rate of pregnant and lying-in women, prenatal examination rate and postpartum visit rate have also been improved to varying degrees.
3. The level of women's reproductive health continues to improve. In recent years, free screening coverage for breast cancer and cervical cancer has been extended from rural women to urban women of the appropriate age in many areas, and the common sense about women health has been fully popularized while regular free gynecological examination has been provided for them. In 2017, the rate of gynecological disease was 24.2%, declined by 4.6% over 2010.
4. The national free pre-pregnance eugenics project continues to be carried out. Free prenatal health check-ups have been carried out in all counties (cities and districts) throughout the country. In 2017, nearly 12 million couples with intended pregnancies were provided free health check-ups, with an average coverage rate of 91.7% for the target population. All the risk groups screened have access to targeted counseling, guidance and treatment referral services, effectively controlling the risk of birth defects.
(II) Women and education.
1. The proportion of women with access to higher education has increased. Compared with 2010, the number of female graduate students in higher education in 2017 was 1.278 million, accounting for 48.4% of all graduate students, increased by 0.6%; the number of ordinary female undergraduates and college students was 14.47 million, accounting for 52.5% of the total, increased by 4.7%; the number of adult undergraduates and college students was 3.2 million, accounting for 58.8% of the total, increased by 5.6%. In 2017, the gross enrollment rate of higher education was 45.7%, increased by 19.2% over 2010, and the target in the Outline has been achieved ahead of time.
2. The proportion of women in high school education has increased. In 2017, the number of female students in senior high schools nationwide was 18.91 million, accounting for 47.6% of the total, increased by 0.5% over 2010; the number of ordinary female undergraduates and college students was 50.9% in 2017, increased by 2.2% over 2010; the gross enrollment rate of high school education increased from 82.5% in 2010 to 88.3% in 2017, increased by 5.8%.
3. Gender gap has been basically eliminated in the stage of compulsory education. In 2017, the consolidation rate of nine-year compulsory education was 93.8%, increased by 2.7% over 2010; the net enrolment rate of primary school-age girls was 99.9%, basically equal to that of boys; the proportion of girls in compulsory education was 46.4%, slightly lower than that in 2010.
4. The proportion of girls receiving preschool education continues to increase. The gross enrollment rate of three-year preschool education has rapidly increased from 56.6% in 2010 to 79.6% in 2010, with an average increase of 3.3%, and the target has been achieved ahead of time. In 2017, there were 46 million children in preschool education (including kindergartens and preschool classes), including 21.49 million girls, increased by 16.23 million and 7.97 million over 2010, respectively; the proportion of girls in preschool education was 46.7%, increased by 1.3%.
(III) Women and economy.
1. The scale of women employment continues to expand. In 2017, the proportion of female employees nationwide in the total employees was 43.5%, exceeding the target of 40% in the Outline. The number of female employees in urban units was 65.45 million, increased by 16.84 million over 2010, accounting for 37.1% of the total employees in urban units. In 2017, the proportion of urban registered unemployed women was 43.1%, declined by 1.2% over last year.
2. The number of female professionals continues to increase. In 2017, the number of female professionals in public-owned enterprises and institutions was 15.297 million, which grew by 2.603 million over 2010 and accounted for 48.6% with an increase of 3.5%; including 1.789 million women senior professionals, which grew by 773,000 over 2010 and accounted for 39.3% with an increase of 4%, and the target has been achieved ahead of time.
3. The proportion of enterprises implementing the Special Provisions on Labor Protection for Female Employees continues to increase. The newly revised Special Provisions on Labor Protection for Female Employees (hereinafter referred to as the Special Provisions) has played a positive role in reducing and solving the special difficulties caused by the physiological characteristics of female workers and protecting their health. In 2017, the proportion of enterprises implementing the Special Provisions reached 71.2%, increased by 16.3% over 2010.
4. The number of poor women in rural areas has been greatly reduced. According to the rural poverty alleviation standard of RMB 2,300 per capita annual income (unchanged in 2010), the poverty-stricken population in rural areas in 2017 was 30.46 million, declined by nearly 140 million over 2010, and about half of the population reduced was female. In 2017, the incidence of poverty was 3.1%, declined by 14.1% over 2010. In addition, there is no significant difference in the incidence of poverty between men and women.
5. The protection of poor women has been constantly strengthened. The country has continuously improved the new social assistance system, strengthened the protection of poor women, and gradually improved the average standard of urban and rural subsistence allowances. In 2017, the average standard of subsistence allowances in urban and rural areas was RMB 450, increased by 1.4 times of RMB 264 over 2010. The number of poverty-stricken people who are entitled to urban and rural subsistence allowances and rural five guarantees was 57.73 million, including 22.72 million women, accounting for 39.4%, increased by about 5% over 2010.
(IV) Women's participation in decision-making and management.
1. The proportion of women deputies to the National People's Congress and CPPCC members continues to increase. The number of women deputies to the 13th National People's Congress was 742, accounting for 24.9% of the total number of deputies, increased by 1.5% over the previous session, which has the highest proportion of female deputies in previous sessions. The number of female members of the standing committee was 18, accounting for 11.3% of the total, 4.2% lower than the previous session. The number of female members of the 13th National Committee of the CPPCC was 440, accounting for 20.4% of the total, 2.6% higher than previous session, which has the highest proportion of female members in previous sessions. The number of female members of the standing committee was 39, accounting for 13% of the total, increased by 1.2% over the previous session.
2. The proportion of women's participation in business operation and management has increased. In 2017, the proportion of female directors in the board of directors was 39.7%, and that of the board of supervisors was 41.6%, increased by 7% and 6.4% over 2010, respectively; the proportion of female representatives in the congress of workers and staff was 29.3%, increased by 0.3% over 2010.
3. Women take an active part in democratic management at the grass-roots level. In 2017, the proportion of female members in neighborhood committees was 49.7%, which was close to the target of 50% in the Outline; the proportion of female directors in the village committees was 10.7%, and the target in the Outline has been achieved ahead of time.
(V) Women and social security.
1. The level of female maternity insurance has been improved. The maternity insurance concerns the vital interests of women workers. In recent years, the number of women buying the maternity insurance has increased rapidly. In 2017, the number of women buying the maternity insurance reached 84.28 million, which grew by 30.61 million over 2010 with an increase of 57%, and the proportion of women buying the maternity insurance was 43.7% of all people buying the insurance.
2. The coverage of basic medical insurance for women has been further expanded. In 2017, the number of women buying the basic medical insurance reached 520 million nationwide, 2.8 times as many as in 2011. The number of women buying the basic medical insurance for urban workers was 140 million, increased by 25.5% over 2011; the number of women buying basic medical insurance for urban residents was 380 million, more than five times that in 2011.
3. More women are entitled to the basic social pension security. In 2017, nearly 390 million women bought the basic pension insurance nationwide, increased by 38 million over last year. The number of women buying the basic pension insurance for urban workers was 180 million, which grew by 71.72 million over 2010 with an increase of 68.1%; in 2017, the number of women buying the basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents was nearly 210 million , which grew by 37 million over last year with an increase of 22%.
4. The number of women buying unemployment insurance and work-related injury insurance has increased. In recent years, the number of women buying unemployment insurance and work-related injury insurance has been increasing. In 2017, the number of women buying unemployment insurance nationwide was 79.5 million, which grew by 28.01 million over 2010 with an increase of 54.4%; the number of women buying work-related injury insurance was 85.94 million, which grew by 28.95 million over 2010 with an increase of 51%.
(VI) Women and environment.
1. The ecological environment has been further optimized. In 2017, there were 2,750 nature reserves of various types and levels, increased by 162 over 2010, including 463 national nature reserves, increased by 144. The national forest area was 210 million hectares, and the forest coverage rate was 21.6%.
2. The urban environment continues to improve. In 2017, the national per capita green space area of parks was 14 square meters, increased by 2.8 square meters over 2010; the green coverage rate of urban built-up areas was 40.9%, increased by 2.3% over 2010; the sewage treatment rate of urban areas exceeded 94.5%, increased by 12.2% over 2010. In 2017, the harmless disposal rate of municipal solid waste was 97.7%, increased by 19.8% over 2010.
3. The sanitary conditions in rural areas have improved significantly. In 2017, the penetration rate of sanitary toilets in rural areas was 81.8% and that of harmless sanitary toilets in rural areas was 62.7%, increased by 14.4% and 17.7% over 2010, respectively. The proportion of beneficiaries of centralized water supply in rural areas was 85%, increased by 27% over 2010, and the target in the Outline has been achieved ahead of time.
(VII) Women and law.
1. The rights and interests of rural women in land contracting are further clarified. In October 2017, the Amendment to the Rural Land Contracting Law of the People's Republic of China (Draft) was officially released. The draft stipulates that all family members with land contracting rights shall be included in the certificates with legal effect, such as land contracting and management rights certificates or forest rights certificates, which clarifies the rights and interests that women shall enjoy and greatly protects the interests of rural women.
2. We shall strictly crack down on the crime of abduction and trafficking of women and children. To crack down on the crime of abduction and trafficking of women and children, China has issued the second action plan for antitrafficking, China's Action Plan against Human Trafficking (2013-2020). By carrying out various special actions, relevant departments shall intensify the efforts to rectify "the buyer's market" of the crime of abduction and trafficking in human beings, so as to reduce the occurrence of cases of abduction and trafficking in human beings from the source. From 2011 to 2017, public security organs cracked over 16,000 cases of abduction and trafficking in women and nearly 12,000 cases of abduction and trafficking in children.
3. We shall provide women with legal aid. Relevant departments vigorously promote the construction of public legal service entities, hotlines and network platforms. In 2017, there were 4,292 government legal aid institutions at provincial, municipal and county levels nationwide, increased by 700 over 2010. From 2011 to 2017, women received legal aid for 2.25 million person times, and their legal rights and interests were safeguarded.
II. Main problems in the implementation of the Outline
(I) Some indicators in the field of maternal and child health have fluctuated. Due to the full implementation of the "two-child" policy and the delays in the age of women's first marriage and childbearing, some new situations have emerged in the field of maternal and child health in China. Compared with the previous year, the maternal mortality rate in rural areas in 2017 increased, while the management rate of maternal system, prenatal examination rate and postpartum visit rate decreased in varying degrees. The imbalance of development among regions in the field of maternal and child health still exists.
(II) The examination rate of gynecological disease has increased slowly. Since the promulgation of the Outline, the examination rate of gynecological disease has been fluctuating, which hit the peak of 68.7% in 2013, dropped to 55.1% in 2014, then rebounded slowly after a few years and reached 66.9% in 2017, still 1.8% down over 2013. At present, it is about three years from the deadline of the Outline, making it difficult to achieve the target of 80% in the Outline if without special measures.
(III) The development of secondary vocational education is obviously lagging behind. Over the years, the development of general high school education is not coordinated with that of secondary vocational education, the development of secondary vocational education is obviously lagging behind and the number of students in schools continues to decline. In 2017, there were 15.92 million students in secondary vocational education schools, including 6.81 million girls, which decreased by 6.46 million and 3.38 million over 2010, respectively, and the proportion of girls dropped from 45.5% in 2010 to 42.8%. The investment in secondary vocational education is insufficient, and the school-running mechanism and the scale, structure and quality of personnel training cannot meet the needs of economic and social development.
(IV) Rural women's participation in politics is not optimistic. Village committees are the grass-roots mass self-governing organizations for villagers to achieve autonomy, but the proportion of rural women elected in the election of village committees is not compatible with the number of rural women and the important role of women in rural economic and social development. In 2017, the proportion of female members of village committees was 23.1%, only 1.7% higher than that in 2010, and there is still a big gap from the target of 30% in the Outline. Although the proportion of female directors in village committees has reached the target of 10% in the Outline, it is still below the target in half of the areas from the national point of view, and the lowest proportion was 2.8% only, from which it can be seen that the development is not unbalanced. Note:  Women buying the basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents in 2017 did not include data of Anhui and Tibet.