2019-01-14 16:37:00 | Author：National Bureau of Statistics in October 2018 | Source：National Bureau of Statistics
I. Implementation of the Outline in each field
(I) Children and health.
1. Children's quality of life has been steadily improved. Infant mortality and under-five mortality continued to decline. In 2017, the infant mortality was 6.8‰ and the under-five mortality was 9.1‰, declined by 6.3‰ and 7.3‰ compared to 2010, respectively, and the target in the Outline has been achieved ahead of time.
2. Children are in good health. In 2017, the incidence of low birth weight infant was 2.88%, which was 1.12% lower than the target of the Outline. The country strongly advocates breastfeeding. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding for infants aged 0-6 months was 75.4%, which is far beyond the target of 50% in the Outline. The low weight rate of children under 5 years old was 1.4%, and the prevalence of anemia among children under 5 years old was 5.4%, achieving the target in the Outline ahead of time.
3. The immunization coverage rate of children's immunization program maintains at a high level. In 2017, the vaccination coverage rate of BCG and polio vaccines and other national immunization programs remained above 99%, and the target of the Outline has been achieved ahead of time. The system management rate of children under 3 years old was 91.1%, and that of children under 7 years old was 92.6%, increased by 9.6% and 9.2% over 2010, respectively.
4. Child injury mortality continues to decline. In 2017, the injury mortality of children under 18 years old was 13.18/100,000, which was 9.23/100,000 lower than that in 2010, and the target of the Outline has been achieved ahead of time.
(II) Children and education.
1. Preschool education has been given priority. In 2017, the proportion of funds for education before middle school in the national financial funds for education was 4.6%, increased by 0.4% over last year. In 2017, there were 255,000 kindergartens nationwide, including 18,300 public kindergartens in urban areas and 76,300 public kindergartens in rural areas, increased by 69.5%, 91.6% and 97.7% over 2010, respectively. There were 2.432 million full-time teachers engaged in preschool education and 46.001 million preschool education students nationwide, increased by 112.6% and 54.5% over 2010, respectively. The gross enrollment rate of the three-year preschool education was 79.6%, increased by 23% over 2010, 9.6% higher than the target in the Outline.
2. Compulsory education has been increasingly popularized. In 2017, the consolidation rate of nine-year compulsory education reached 93.8%, 2.7% higher than that in 2010, and continued to approach the target of 95% in the Outline. The nine-year compulsory education population coverage rate has reached 100%, the gross enrollment rate in the junior middle school stage was over 100%, and the net enrollment rate of primary school-age children was 99.9%.
3. Special education has developed rapidly. In 2017, there were 2,107 special education schools nationwide and 56,000 full-time teachers engaged in special education, grew by 401 schools and 16,000 teachers over 2010, with an increase of 23.5% and 41.2%, respectively; there were 111,000 students of special education enrolled and 579,000 students in schools, increased by 70.9% and 36% over 2010, respectively; there were 569,000 students with disabilities nationwide in the stage of compulsory education, increased by 36.7% over 2010.
4. High school education continues to advance. In 2017, the gross enrollment rate in the senior high school stage reached 88.3%, increased by 5.8% over 2010, which was a step closer to the target of 90% in the Outline. There were 1.774 million full-time teachers in senior high schools nationwide, which grew by 256,000 over 2010, with an increase of 16.8%. In 2017, the average public budgetary expenditure for education in senior high schools and secondary vocational schools increased by 2.1 times and 1.7 times over 2010, respectively, and the average public budgetary expenditure for students increased by 2.2 times and 2.3 times, respectively.
(III) Children and welfare.
1. The number of child care and protection institutions has increased. In 2017, there were 663 child adoption and rescue service agencies in China, including 469 child welfare institutions and 194 minor rescue and protection centers, increased by 134 and 49 over 2010, respectively. The child adoption and rescue service agencies nationwide have 103,000 beds, which grew by 48,000 over 2010, with an increase of 87.3%.
2. The number of orphans continues to decline. The number of orphans has continued to decline for five consecutive years. In 2017, there were 410,000 orphans in China, declined by 51,000 over last year; including 19,000 orphans who were adopted by families, accounting for 4.6% of the total orphans. The adoption agencies nationwide adopted 106,000 orphans, including 59,000 orphans adopted by child welfare institutions.
3. The ability to provide disabled children with professional rehabilitation services has been improved. With the implementation of the Outline of the 13th Five-Year Plan for Accelerating the Process of Well-off for People with Disabilities and the 13th Five-Year Plan for the Implementation of Rehabilitation Services for People with Disabilities, the rehabilitation service system for the disabled has been further improved, providing a strong guarantee for the rehabilitation of disabled children. In 2017, there were 8,334 service agencies for the disabled providing disabled children with rehabilitation services, increased by 476 over last year, and 141,000 disabled children aged 0-6 received basic rehabilitation services.
(IV) Children and environment.
1. Children's living environment improves continuously. The country has intensified its efforts to control the environment, and the quality of the environment has been significantly improved. In 2017, the total investment in environmental pollution control in China was RMB 953.9 billion, which was 1.3 times that in 2010. The per capita green area of urban parks was 14 square meters, increased by 2.8 square meters over 2010. Compared with 2010, the green coverage rate of urban built-up areas was 40.9%, increased by 2.3%; the sewage treatment rate was 94.5%, increased by 12.2%; the harmless treatment rate of municipal solid waste was 97.7%, increased by 19.8%; the proportion of beneficiaries of centralized water supply in rural areas was 85%, increased by 27%; the penetration rate of sanitary toilets in rural areas reached 81.8%, increased by 14.4%. The construction of building a Beautiful China has taken a new step, providing an environmental guarantee for the sound growth of children.
2. Children's social environment continues to be optimized. The country has integrated community resources to build children playgrounds and strengthen the construction of children's social work force. In 2017, there were 185,000 children's centers nationwide, increased by 9,000 over last year; there were 38,000 professional social workers with certificates in grass-roots organizations, 4.2 times that of 2010.
3. Children's cultural products and playgrounds are constantly enriched. In 2017, there were 211 children's periodicals in total, and 450 million copies of children's periodicals were published; there were 42,000 kinds of children's books, and 820 million copies of children's books were published, whose publication volume was 1.9 times and 2.3 times that in 2010, respectively. There were 3,166 public libraries in China with 99.996 million copies of children's literature, 122 children's libraries with 43.685 million copies of children's libraries, twice as many as in 2010. The broadcasting time of national children's broadcasting programs, children's TV programs and animated TV programs was 250,000 hours, 571,000 hours and 363,000 hours, respectively. In 2017, there were 262 million visits to museums by minors nationwide, 2.3 times as many as in 2010; there were 35.23 million visits to science and technology museums by minors nationwide, increased by 22.2% over last year.
(V) Children and legal protection.
1. The legal system for the protection of children's rights and interests is perfecting day by day. In 2017, the General Rules of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China was formally put into effect, of which a number of terms involved the regulation and protection of the minors' civil rights and obligations. The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on Several Issues Concerning the Specific Application of Law in the Trial of Crimes of Abducting and Trafficking in Women and Children has been put into effect, and multiple measures have been taken simultaneously to provide a strong guarantee for curbing the crime of abducting and trafficking in women and children.
2. The effect of cracking down on crimes against children is remarkable. To implement the national action plan for antitrafficking and adapt to the requirements in the era of "Internet+crackdown", the emergency release platform of the Ministry of Public Security that publishes missing child information has been constantly improved and updated, and has been united with the China National Radio, China National Emergency Broadcasting Center, Tencent News client and other media to further expand the channels and scope of information release. The platform has released the information of 1,317 missing children and recovered 1,274 children. In 2017, 546 cases of child abduction and trafficking were cracked nationwide.
3. The scope of legal aid for children has been expanded. We will further implement the Opinions on Improving the Legal Aid System issued by the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council, promote the construction of a public legal service system covering urban and rural areas, and make legal aid an important means for the government to provide basic public services. We will strengthen the construction of "12348" legal service hotline to facilitate people's access to public legal services. In 2017, the assistance provided for the minors nationwide by legal institutions reaches 145,000 times, which grew by 57,000 over 2010, with an increase of 65.4%.
4. Minor crimes have been effectively controlled. The number of juvenile delinquents, the crime rate and the proportion of juvenile delinquents continue to decrease throughout the country. In 2017, the number of juvenile delinquents in China was 32,778, which declined by 35,420 over 2010, with a decrease of 51.9%. The proportion of juvenile delinquents in the same period was 2.58%, 4.2% down over 2010. The proportion of juvenile delinquents in the total juvenile delinquents was 19.3%, declined by 16.6% over 2010.
II. Main problems in the implementation of the Outline
(I) The problem of "kindergarten crunch" has been alleviated and the quality of kindergarten needs to be improved.
In 2017, the proportion of preschool education funds in the national financial education funds increased by 0.4% over last year, and the investment in preschool education increased. According to the results of 13 provinces and cities in China surveyed by the statistics department, the state investment in preschool education has increased and the problem of "kindergarten crunch" has been alleviated, but the problem of "difficulty in admission to high-quality kindergartens" is still more prominent, and parents have set higher demands for the quality of the kindergarten where their children are, quality of teachers, teachers' professional skills and the increase of quality preschool education resources.
(II) The health status of children still faces problems and challenges.
In recent years, the nutritional conditions of children in China have been significantly improved. Since the implementation of the Outline, the incidence of low birth weight children has always been below the monitoring target of 4%, and the prevalence of anemia in children under 5 years old is far below the monitoring target of 12%. However, these two indicators in 2017 increased by 0.15% and 0.64% over last year, which shall be taken seriously.
(III) The sex ratio at birth is still high.
Although the sex ratio at birth has been declining since the implementation of the Outline, the overall level is still high. In 2017, the sex ratio at birth in China was 111.9 (on the base of 100 women), which was still higher than the upper limit of international standards.